BOOKS

Reed & Kellogg's Graded Lessons in English

Author: Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg

Rating: 4.5 / 5.0

As I mentioned elsewhere, I bought a copy of Reed & Kellogg’s Graded Lessons in English: a grammar book in the Euclidean pedagogical tradition dating from the late 19th. Having read it, I really enjoyed it and extracted notes from it; since the material builds axiomatically, proposition by proposition, it’s very easy to extract notes for.

I think there are two good reasons for a modern person to read the book.

  1. It is a clear, reasoned, adult-ready book of the grammar of the English language. I’m not sure it’s the best way to learn English, but as a summary, or a review, or a coalescing document, it’s lucid and enjoyable.
  2. It introduces the abstraction of the sentence diagram as a learning aid. I think this is worth seeing in the primary source for two audiences:
  3. Those who create learning materials: How the learning aid and knowledge organizing tool is introduced (the diagram) never loses sight of the fact that it is in service to the material, it is not an end in itself. That’s worth remembering!
  4. Those who need tools for studying other grammar (linguists, foreign language learners, etc.) Knowing the grammatical terms and their notation in English sets one up for porting a diagramming framework to other languages under study

Find my notes after the jump

Lessons dealing with diagramming are prefixed with ! for easy finding

  1. Lesson 1
  • Letter the sign of a sound in English
  • Idea: a mental picture
  • Word: the sign of an idea
  1. Lesson 2
  • There are 26 letters
  • Vowels: Number 5 and correspond to sounds which are made with an open mouth voicing
  • Consonants are made by restricted breathing and restricted voicing
  • Artificial Language: Spoken and written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts
  • English Grammar: the science which teaches the forms, uses, and relations of the words of the English Language
  1. Lesson 3
  • Some utterances assert something
  1. Lesson 4
  • Sentence: the expression of a thought in words
  1. Lesson 5: Review
  2. Lesson 6
  • Subject: that of which something is thought
  • Predicate: what is thought
  • Analysis: separation of a sentence into its parts
  1. (!) Lesson 7: INTRODUCTION OF THE DIAGRAM
  • Solid horizontal line
  • Short vertical line bifurcating
  • Subject on the left half
  • Predicate on the right half
  1. Lesson 8
  1. Lesson 9: Exercises
  2. Lesson 10: Review
  3. Lesson 11
  • A predicate sometimes contains more than one word
  • Example: Money is circulated → money | is circulated
  1. Lesson 12: Exercises
  2. Lesson 13: Exercises
  3. Lesson 14
  • Words are grouped into classes known as “Parts of Speech”
  • Noun: The name of anything
  • Parsing: Identifying the part of speech a word belongs to is the first step of Parsing
  1. Lesson 15
  • Proper Nouns are capitalized
  1. -_cLesson 16
  • Verb: Verb is a word that asserts action, being, or state of being
  • The office of the verb except in the case of the participle (verbal adjective) or infinitive (verbal noun) is to assert
  1. Lesson 17: Exercises
  2. Lesson 18: Exercises
  3. Lesson 19
  • Pronoun: a word used for a noun
  1. (!) Lesson 20
  • The subject and predicate are the foundation for the sentence
  • Subjects and Predicates can be modified. They have modifiers applied to them
  • Modifier: is a group of words joined to some part of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning
  • DIAGRAMMING Modifiers are written as diagonal slashes off from the subject or predicate like \
  1. Lesson 21: Exercises
  2. Lesson 22
  • Adjective: a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun
  1. Lesson 23: Exercises
  2. Lesson 24: Predicates can also be modified per 20
  3. (!) Lesson 25:
  • Modifiers can be modified. They are given a line and another subordinating \. Thus “The animal fled still more rapidly” will have rapidly modify fled and more modify rapidly and still modify more.
  • DIAGRAMMING: Small hooks of new modifiers after a more prime modifier
  1. Lesson 26: Exercises
  2. Lesson 27:
  • Adverbs: is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
  1. Lesson 28: Exercises
  2. Lesson 29: Exercises
  3. Lesson 30: Exercises
  4. (!) Lesson 31
  • Many phrases are introduced by a preposition
  • Phrase: a group of words denoting related ideas but not expressing a full thought
  • DIAGRAMMING: Use the preposition as a modifier. Extend from its end a horizontal line bearing the preposition. The horizontal line bears the indirect object e.g. into Florida: into on the diagonal, Florida on the horizontal
  1. Lesson 32: Exercises
  2. Lesson 33: Exercises
  3. Lesson 34
  • Preposition: a word that introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified.
  1. (!) Lesson 35
  • Compound Subject: When two or more subjects are linked by a conjunction but have the same predicate
    • Birds and bees fly.
  • Compound Predicate: When two or more predicates are linked by a conjunction to a common subject
    • Birds twitter and fly.
    • DIAGRAMMING: We place the common compounds each on a horizontal line, flaring out from either the basic subject or predicate slot. Across the horizontal bars, which are the compound constituents, we apply a vertical line upon which we write the conjunction that’s coordinating the compounds.
  1. (!) Lesson 36
  • Conjunction: a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses
  • Interjection: a word to express a sudden feeling
  • DIAGRAMMING
    • Conjunctions are dashed lines connecting the split elements
    • Interjections stand wholly apart
  1. Lesson 37
  • Comma Rule: Phrases that are out of order, out of the nature of the sentence, etc. are bonded into it with ,
  • Comma Rule: Commas replace full conjunctions in series
  • Abbreviations close with a period
  • Exclamatory statements end with an exclamation point
  1. Lesson 38: Exercises
  2. Lesson 39
  • When a verb demands a direct object as “The Sun gives” we are missing a complement.
  • Object Complement: The direct object called for by the verb thus completing the predicate
  • Attribute Complement: The attribute that we use to modify a subject. Chalk is …
  • Modified Complement: The total of the complement and its modifiers
  • DIAGRAMMING
    • Object complements are set off from subject and predicate by another bar | on the main line
    • Attribute complements are set off from subject and predicate by a back bar \ after the predicate
  1. Lesson 40: Exercises
  2. Lesson 41: Exercises
  3. Lesson 42: Exercises
  4. Lesson 43: Exercises
  5. Lesson 44: Exercises
  6. Lesson 45: Exercises
  7. Lesson 46: Exercises
  8. Lesson 47: Exercises
  9. (!) Lesson 48:
  • Participles Are verbal adjectives
  • As such, they modify nouns
  • They may be completed by objects or attributes
  • DIAGRAMMING: Because of this they arc across the \ and the _ that makes an ell off of what is being modified
  1. (!) Lesson 49
  • Infinitives Are verbal nouns
  • They may be completed by objects or attributes
  • DIAGRAMMING: Because of this they arc across the \ and the _ that makes an ell off of what is being modified. When they are the subject, this “ell” is linked to the subject space with a /\ with the infinitive base on a _ on top and the \ backslash leading into the “topper”. I call this the stick-man figure
  1. Lesson 50: Exercises
  2. Lesson 51: Exercises
  3. Lesson 52: Exercises
  4. Lesson 53
  • Nouns function as modifiers when they are possessives
  1. Lesson 54
  • Appositives or explanatory modifiers are set off by ,
  1. Lesson 55: Exercises
  2. Lesson 56: Exercises
  3. (!) Lesson 57
  • Complex Sentences and the Adjective Clause
    • Sometimes an adjective can be expanded into a phrase: the running man to the man who runs. The phrase re-names the noun, thus is behaves as a pronoun and is triggered to that use by the pronoun “who” i.e. the relative pronoun
    • Clause is a part of a sentence containing a subject and its predicate.
    • Dependent Clause is one used as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun.
    • Independent Clause is one not dependent on another clause.
    • Simple Sentence is one that contains but one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.
    • Complex Sentence is one composed of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
    • A man who will be honored is coming
      • (IC) A man is coming
      • (DC) who will be honored
      • Ergo: complex sentence
    • DIAGRAMMING
      • Use a dashed line to create a new diagram where the relative pronoun restates the subject
      • Thus the new diagram has its own subject/predicate line with: (relative pronoun) | (predicate)
  1. Lesson 58: Exercises
  2. (!) Lesson 59
  • Complex Sentences and the Adverb Clause
    • book was carefully read to book was read with care
    • at sunrise to when the sun rose
    • DIAGRAMMING
      • Use the adverb on a dashed \ bonded from the main diagram to a new sub-diagram
      • Diagram the clause as normal
  1. Lesson 60: Exercises
  2. Lesson 61
  • Complex Sentences and the Noun Clause
    • A clause may be used as a noun as a subject or as an object complement
    • “That stars are suns is taught” (subject)
    • “They teach that stars are suns (object complement)”
    • DIAGRAMMING Use the stick-man figure
               That
    stars | are |\\ suns
    -- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
                    |
                    |
                  /   \\\
                  _____    | is taught
    
  1. (!) Lesson 62
  • Compound Sentence: Composition of two or more independent clauses
  • DIAGRAMMING Since we have two full clauses, use two diagrams connected by a straight line to each other via the conjunction
  1. Lesson 63
  • 3 Sentence Types
    • Simple
    • Complex
    • Compound
  • 4 Sentence Meaning Types
    • Declarative
    • Interrogative
    • Imperative
    • Exclamatory
  1. Lesson 64: Exercises
  2. Lesson 65: Exercises
  3. Lesson 66: Exercises
  4. Lesson 67: Exercises
  5. Lesson 68: Exercises
  6. Lesson 69: Exercises
  7. Lesson 70: Exercises
  8. Lesson 71
  • Classes of Noun
    • Proper Noun
    • Common Noun
  • Classes of Pronoun
    • Personal Pronoun: Denotes speaker, one spoken of, or one spoken to
    • Relative Pronoun: Connects to relative clauses
    • Interrogative Pronoun: Asks
  1. Lesson 72: Exercises
  2. Lesson 73
  • Classes of Adjective
    • Descriptive Adjective: Describes a kind by limiting a quality
    • Definitve Adjective: Points out, numbers, or denotes quality
  1. Lesson 74
  • Classes of Verb
    • Transitive Verb: Those which require a direct object
    • Intransitive Verb: Those which do not require a direct object
  • Classes of Verb Form
    • Regular: forms past tense and past participle by adding -ed
    • Irregular: not
  1. Lesson 75
  • Classes of Adverb
    • Of Time
    • Of Place
    • Of Degree
    • Of Manner
  1. Lesson 76
  • Classes of Conjunction
    • Coordinate Those that connect clauses of the same rank (and, or, but)
    • Subordinate Those that subordinate a clause (if, because, that, for)
  1. Lesson 77: Exercises
  2. Lesson 78
  • Nouns have number, singular or plural
  1. Lesson 79: Exercises
  2. Lesson 80
  • Nouns have gender and might change suffixes
  1. Lesson 81
  • Nouns have person: first, second, third
  • Nouns have case: subjective, objective, possessive
  1. Lesson 82: Exercises
  2. Lesson 83:
  • Declension is the arrangement of cases (3) into columns based on number (sg., pl.)
  • Compound Personal Pronoun: Add -self
  • Relative / Interrogative Pronouns: Who/Which, Whose/Whose, Whom/Which
  1. Lesson 84
  • Possessive is formed by 's or s'
  1. Lesson 85
  • Forms of the pronoun
    • Nominative: I, We, thou, ye, he/she, they, and who
    • Objective: Me, Us, thee, thee, him/her, them, whom
  1. Lesson 86
  • Classification of Noun
    • Noun | Kind (Proper, comparative) || Person | Number | Gender | Case || Syntax (function)
  1. Lesson 87
  • Comparative of adjectives
    • Positive
    • Comparative (-er)
    • Superlative (-est)
  1. Lesson 88
  • Adverbs follow the same format as adjectives
  1. Lesson 89
  • Voice is a factor in verbs
    • Active: names the actor
    • Passive: names the thing acted upon
  1. Lesson 90
  • There exist four modes (“mood” in Latin study) of verb
    • Indicative: James walks out
    • Potential: James may walk out
    • Subjunctive: If James walk out, he will be healthy
    • Imperative: James, walk out.
  • There exist six tenses in English
    • Present: I walk
    • Past: I walked
    • Future: I shall walk
    • Present Perfect: I have walked
    • Past Perfect: I had walked
    • Future Perfect: I shall have walked
  • Verbs agree in person and number
  • Infinitive is a form of the verb which names the action or being in a general way, without asserting it of anything.
  • Participle is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an adjective or noun, and expressing the action or being as assumed.
    • The Present Participle denotes action or being as continuing at the time indicated by the predicate.
    • The Past Participle denotes action or being as past or completed at the time indicated by the predicate.
    • The Past Perfect Participle denotes action or being as completed at a time previous to that indicated by the predicate
  1. Lesson 91
  • Auxiliary Verbs: are those that help in the conjugation of other verbs
  • The auxiliaries are: do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, and must
  • The Principal Parts of a Verb are the present indicative or the present infinitive, the past indicative, and the past participle.
    • Blow, blew, blown
    • Been, was, been
    • Break, broke, broken
  1. Lesson 92: Conjugation of “to see”
  2. Lesson 93: Regular conjugation exercise
  3. Lesson 94: Conjugation of “to be”
  4. Lesson 95: Verb must agree in number and person
  5. Lesson 96: Exercises
  6. Lesson 97: Exercises
  7. Lesson 98: Exercises
  8. Lesson 99: Exercises
  9. Lesson 100: Exercises
  • Punctuation rules
    • NB: Comma
      • (1) a phrase out of its natural order or not closely connected with the word it modifies
      • (2) an explanatory modifier that does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it
      • (3) a participle used as an adjective modifier, with the words belonging to it, unless restrictive
      • (4) the adjective clause, when not restrictive
      • (5) the adverb clause, unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies
      • (6) a word or phrase independent or nearly so
      • (7) a direct quotation introduced into a sentence unless formally introduced
      • (8) a noun clause used as an attribute complement and
      • (9) a term connected to another by or and having the same meaning. Separate by the comma
      • (10) connected words and phrases, unless all the conjunctions are expressed
      • (11) independent clauses, when short and closely connected
      • (12) the parts of a compound predicate and of other phrases, when long or differently modified.