BOOKS

Reed & Kellogg's Graded Lessons in English

Author: Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg

Rating: 4.5 / 5.0

As I mentioned elsewhere, I bought a copy of Reed & Kellogg’s Graded Lessons in English: a grammar book in the Euclidean pedagogical tradition dating from the late 19th. Having read it, I really enjoyed it and extracted notes from it; since the material builds axiomatically, proposition by proposition, it’s very easy to extract notes for.

I think there are two good reasons for a modern person to read the book.

  1. It is a clear, reasoned, adult-ready book of grammar of the English language. I’m not sure it’s the best way to learn English, but as a summary, or a review, or a coalescing document, it’s lucid and enjoyable.
  2. It introduces the abstraction of the sentence diagram as a learning aid. I think this is worth seeing in the primary source for two audiences:
    1. Those who create learning materials: How the learning aid and knowledge organizing tool is introduced (the diagram) never loses sight of the fact that it is in service to the material, it is not an end in itself. That’s worth remembering!
    2. Those who need tools for studying other grammar (linguists, foreign language learners, etc.) Knowing the grammatical terms and their notation in English sets one up for porting a diagramming frameowrk to other languages under study

Find my notes after the jump

Lessons dealing with diagramming are prefixed with ! for easy finding

  1. Lesson 1
    • Letter the sign of a sound in English
    • Idea: a mental picture
    • Word: the sign of an idea
  2. Lesson 2
    • There are 26 letters
    • Vowels: Number 5 and correspond to sounds which are made with an open mouth voicing
    • Consonants are made by restricted breathing and restricted voicing
    • Artificial Langugae: Spoken and written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts
    • English Grammar: the science which teaches the forms, uses, and relations of the words of the English Language
  3. Lesson 3
    • Some utterances assert something
  4. Lesson 4
    • Sentence: the expression of a thought in words
  5. Lesson 5: Review
  6. Lesson 6
    • Subject: that of which something is thought
    • Predicate: what is thought
    • Analysis: separation of a sentence into its parts
  7. (!) Lesson 7: INTRODUCTION OF THE DIAGRAM
    • Solid horizontal line
    • Short vertical line bifurcating
    • Subject on the left half
    • Predicate on the right half
  8. Lesson 8
  9. Lesson 9: Exercises
  10. Lesson 10: Review
  11. Lesson 11
    • A predicate sometimes contains more than one word
    • Example: Money is circulated → money | is circulated
  12. Lesson 12: Exercises
  13. Lesson 13: Exercises
  14. Lesson 14
    • Words are grouped into classes known as “Parts of Speech”
    • Noun: The name of anything
    • Parsing: Identifying the part of speech a word belongs to is the first step of Parsing
  15. Lesson 15
    • Proper Nouns are capitalized
  16. -_cLesson 16
    • Verb: Verb is a word that asserts action, being, or state of being
    • The office of the verb except in the case of participle (verbal adjective) or infinitive (verbal noun) is to assert
  17. Lesson 17: Exercises
  18. Lesson 18: Exercises
  19. Lesson 19
    • Pronoun: a word used for a noun
  20. (!) Lesson 20
    • The subject and predicate are the foundation for the sentence
    • Subjects and Predicates can be modified. They have modifiers applied to them
    • Modifier: is group of words joined to some part of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning
    • DIAGRAMMING Modifiers are written as diagonal slashes off from the subject or predicate like \
  21. Lesson 21: Exercises
  22. Lesson 22
    • Adjective: a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun
  23. Lesson 23: Exercises
  24. Lesson 24: Predicates can also be modified per 20
  25. (!) Lesson 25:
    • Modifiers can be modified. They are given a line and another subordinating \. Thus “The animal fled still more rapidly” will have rapidly modify fled and more modify rapidly and still modify more.
    • DIAGRAMMING: Small hooks of new modifiers after a more prime modifier
  26. Lesson 26: Exercises
  27. Lesson 27:
    • Adverbs: is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
  28. Lesson 28: Exercises
  29. Lesson 29: Exercises
  30. Lesson 30: Exercises
  31. (!) Lesson 31
    • Many phrases are introduced by a preposition
    • Phrase: group of words denoting related ideas but not expressing a full thought
    • DIAGRAMMING: Use the preposition as a modifier. Extend from its end a horizontal line bearing the preposition. The horizontal line bears the indirect object e.g. into Florida: into on the diagonal, Florida on the horizontal
  32. Lesson 32: Exercises
  33. Lesson 33: Exercises
  34. Lesson 34
    • Preposition: a word that introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified.
  35. (!) Lesson 35
    • Compound Subject: When two or more subjects are linked by a conjunction but have the same predicate
    • Birds and bees fly.
    • Compound Predicate: When two or more predicates are linked by a conjunction to a common subject
    • Birds twitter and fly.
    • DIAGRAMMING: We place the common compounds each on a horizontal line, flaring out from either the basic subject or predicate slot. Across the horizontal bars which are the compound consituents we apply a vertical line upon which we write the conjunction that’s coordinating the compounds.
  36. (!) Lesson 36
    • Conjunction: a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses
    • Interjection: a word to express sudden feeling
    • DIAGRAMMING
    • Conunctions are dashed lines connecting the split elements
    • Interjections stand wholly apart
  37. Lesson 37
    • Comma Rule: Phrases that are out of order, out of the nature of the sentence, etc. are bonded into it with ,
    • Comma Rule: Commas replace full conjunctions in series
    • Abbreviations close with period
    • Exclamatory statements end with an exclamation point
  38. Lesson 38: Exercises
  39. Lesson 39
    • When a verb demands a direct object as “The Sun gives” we are missing a complement.
    • Object Complement: The direct object called for by the verb thus comleting the predicate
    • Attribute Complement: The attribute that we use to modify a subject. Chalk is …
    • Modified Complement: The total of the complement and its modifiers
    • DIAGRAMMING
    • Object complements are set off from subject and predicate by another bar | on the main line
    • Attribute complements are set off from subject and predicate by a back bar \ after predicate
  40. Lesson 40: Exercises
  41. Lesson 41: Exercises
  42. Lesson 42: Exercises
  43. Lesson 43: Exercises
  44. Lesson 44: Exercises
  45. Lesson 45: Exercises
  46. Lesson 46: Exercises
  47. Lesson 47: Exercises
  48. (!) Lesson 48:
    • Participles Are verbal adjectives
    • As such, they modify nouns
    • They may be completed by objects or attributes
    • DIAGRAMMING: Because of this they arc across the \ and the _ that makes an ell off of what is being modified
  49. (!) Lesson 49
    • Infinitives Are verbal nouns
    • They may be completed by objects or attributes
    • DIAGRAMMING: Because of this they arc across the \ and the _ that makes an ell off of what is being modified. When they are the subject, this “ell” is linked to the subject space with a /\ with the infitive base on a _ on top and the \ backslash leading into the “topper”. I call this the stick-man figure
  50. Lesson 50: Exercises
  51. Lesson 51: Exercises
  52. Lesson 52: Exercises
  53. Lesson 53
    • Nouns function as modifiers when they are possessives
  54. Lesson 54
    • Appositives or explanatory modifiers are set off by ,
  55. Lesson 55: Exercises
  56. Lesson 56: Exercises
  57. (!) Lesson 57
    • Complex Sentences and the Adjective Clause
    • Sometimes an adjective can be expanded into a phrase: the running man to the man who runs. The phrase re-names the noun, thus is behaves as a pronoun and is triggered to that use by the pronoun “who” i.e. the relative pronoun
    • Clause is a part of a sentence containing a subject and its predicate.
    • Dependent Clause isone used as an adjec tive, an adverb, or a nonn.
    • Independent Clause is one not dependent on another clause.
    • Simple Sentence is one that contains but one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.
    • Complex Sentence is one composed of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
    • A man who will be honored is coming
      • (IC) A man is coming
      • (DC) who will be honored
      • Ergo: complex sentence
    • DIAGRAMMING
      • Use a dashed line to create a new diagram where the relative pronoun restates the subject
      • Thus the new diagram has its own subject / predicate line with: (relative pronoun) | (predicate)
  58. Lesson 58: Exercises
  59. (!) Lesson 59
    • Complex Sentences and the Adverb Clause
    • book was carefully read to book was read with care
    • at sunrise to when the sun rose
    • DIAGRAMMING
      • Use the adverb on a dashed \ bonded from the main diagram to a new sub-diagram
      • Diagram the clause as normal
  60. Lesson 60: Exercises
  61. Lesson 61
    • Complex Sentences and the Noun Clause
    • A clause may be used as a noun as a subject or as an object complement
    • “That stars are suns is taught” (subject)
    • “They teach that stars are suns (object complement)”
    • DIAGRAMMING Use the stick-man figure
                 That
      stars | are |\ suns
      – – — – – – – – – –
                  |
                  |
                /   \
      _____ | is taught
  62. (!) Lesson 62
    • Compound Sentence: Composition of two or more independent clauses
    • DIAGRAMMING Since we have two full clauses, use two diagrams connected by a straight line to each other via the conjunction
  63. Lesson 63
    • 3 Sentence Types
    • Simple
    • Complex
    • Compound
    • 4 Sentence Meaning Types
    • Declarative
    • Interrogative
    • Imperative
    • Exclamatory
  64. Lesson 64: Exercises
  65. Lesson 65: Exercises
  66. Lesson 66: Exercises
  67. Lesson 67: Exercises
  68. Lesson 68: Exercises
  69. Lesson 69: Exercises
  70. Lesson 70: Exercises
  71. Lesson 71
    • Classes of Noun
    • Proper Noun
    • Common Noun
    • Classes of Pronoun
    • Personal Pronoun: Denotes speaker, one spoken of, or one spoken to
    • Relative Pronoun: Connects to relative clauses
    • Interrogative Pronoun: Asks
  72. Lesson 72: Exercises
  73. Lesson 73
    • Classes of Adjective
    • Descriptive Adjective: Describes a kind by limiting a quality
    • Definitve Adjective: Points out, numbers, or denotes quality
  74. Lesson 74
    • Classes of Verb
    • Transitive Verb: Those which require a direct object
    • Intransitive Verb: Those which do not require a direct object
    • Classes of Verb Form
    • Regular: forms past tense and past participle by adding -ed
    • Irregular: not
  75. Lesson 75
    • Classes of Adverb
    • Of Time
    • Of Place
    • Of Degree
    • Of Manner
  76. Lesson 76
    • Classes of Conjunction
    • Coordinate Those that connect clauses of the same rank (and, or, but)
    • Subordinate Those that subordinate a clause (if, because, that, for)
  77. Lesson 77: Exercises
  78. Lesson 78
    • Nouns have number, singular or plural
  79. Lesson 79: Exercises
  80. Lesson 80
    • Nouns have gender and might change suffixes
  81. Lesson 81
    • Nouns have person: first, second, third
    • Nouns have case: subjective, objective, possessive
  82. Lesson 82: Exercises
  83. Lesson 83:
    • Declension is arrangement of cases (3) into columns based on number (sg., pl.)
    • Compound Personal Pronoun: Add -self
    • Relative / Interrogative Pronouns: Who/Which, Whose/Whose, Whom/Which
  84. Lesson 84
    • Possessive is formed by 's or s'
  85. Lesson 85
    • Forms of the pronoun
    • Nominative: I, We, thou, ye, he/she, they, and who
    • Objective: Me, Us, thee, thee, him/her, them, whom
  86. Lesson 86
    • Classification of Noun
    • Noun | Kind (Proper, comparative) || Person | Number | Gender | Case || Syntax (function)
  87. Lesson 87
    • Comparative of adjectives
    • Positive
    • Comparative (-er)
    • Superlative (-est)
  88. Lesson 88
    • Adverbs follow the same format as adjectives
  89. Lesson 89
    • Voice is a factor in verbs
    • Active: names the actor
    • Passive: names the thing acted upon
  90. Lesson 90
    • There exist four modes (“mood” in Latin study) of verb
    • Indicative: James walks out
    • Potential: James may walk out
    • Subjunctive: If James walk out, he will be healthy
    • Imperative: James, walk out.
    • There exist six tenses in English
    • Present: I walk
    • Past: I walked
    • Future: I shall walk
    • Present Perfect: I have walked
    • Past Perfect: I had walked
    • Future Perfect: I shall have walked
    • Verbs agree in person and number
    • Infinitive is a form of the verb which names the action or being in a general way, without asserting it of anything.
    • Participle is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an adjective or of a noun, and expressing the action or being as assumed.
    • The Present Participle denotes action or being as continuing at the time indicated by the predicate.
    • The Past Participle denotes action or being as past or completed at the time indicated by the predicate.
    • The Past Perfect Participle denotes action or being as completed at a time previous to that indicated by the predicate
  91. Lesson 91
    • Auxiliary Verbs: are those that help in the conjugation of other verbs
    • The auxiliaries are: do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, and must
    • The Principal Parts of a Verb are the present indicative or the present infinitive, the past indicative, and the past participle.
    • Blow, blew, blown
    • Been, was, been
    • Break, broke, broken
  92. Lesson 92: Conjugation of “to see”
  93. Lesson 93: Regular conjugation exercise
  94. Lesson 94: Conjugation of “to be”
  95. Lesson 95: Verb must agree in number and person
  96. Lesson 96: Exercises
  97. Lesson 97: Exercises
  98. Lesson 98: Exercises
  99. Lesson 99: Exercises
  100. Lesson 100: Exercises
    • Punctuation rules
    • NB: Comma
      • (1) a phrase out of its natural order or not closely connected with the word it modifies
      • (2) an explanatory modifier that does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it
      • (3) a participle used as an adjective modifier, with the words belonging to it, unless restrictive
      • (4) the adjective clause, when not restrictive
      • (5) the adverb clause, unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies
      • (6) a word or phrase independent or nearly so
      • (7) a direct quotation introduced into a sentence, unless formally introduced
      • (8) a noun clause used as an attribute complement and
      • (9) a term connected to another by or and having the same meaning. Separate by the comma
      • (10) connected words and phrases, unless all the conjunctions are expressed
      • (11) independent clauses, when short and closely connected
      • (12) the parts of a compound predicate and of other phrases, when long or dif ferently modified.